Several Estonian governmental, banking, religious, and media websites.
EFFECT OF ATTACKS:
Several sites offline, multiple defacements.
TYPE OF ATTACK:
DoS, DDoS, spam, defacements
Ping floods (1), botnets (1).
Apparently a reaction to Estonia's relocation of a Soviet-era Russian statue - considered an affront to the memory of Russian soldiers who died during WW2. Some speculation considers the attacks too sophisticated to have been a group of independent activists - that it must have had support from a telecom company or state (4). On the other hand, American experts (6,7) characterized it as less severe and less likely one government attacking another.