Multiple governmental sites
EFFECT OF ATTACKS:
Many blocked, others defaced/hijacked. The Georgian Parliament website was defaced with images comparing the president to Hitler.
Russia's Foreign Military Intelligence agency (the GRU) and Federal Security Service (the FSB) (5).
TYPE OF ATTACK:
Traffic re-routing, DDoS
Traffic rerouted through servers in Russia and Turkey, rumored to be under control by the Russian Business Network - a government-influenced hacker group. Incidents took place days into the 2008 South Ossetia war. At least one defacement had the "South Ossetia Hack Crew" taking credit for the attack. Arbor Networks found data in the DDoS attacks with the message "win+love+in+russia". DDoS might have started weeks before the ground attacks - as early as late July. Some sites switched to Blogger, while others were offered hosting by previous Russian cyberwarfare target, Estonia. Stopgeorgia.ru may have been a "fulcrum" for the attacks.